This study seeks to solve the lack of low-cost, accurate water quality measuring tools by creating an inexpensive spectrophotometer utilizing a smartphone for the measurement of various water contaminants. The device consists of a mount, LEDs, and a smartphone, and uses advanced software tools, including machine learning, for data processing, analysis, and contaminant concentration prediction. The machine learning models were trained on 2,282 prepared test samples and 15 gathered field samples from eight sources, which were separately tested using standard techniques. The overall device and analysis software was then evaluated using eight separate testing samples from eight different locations, and was used to conduct a proof-of-concept mini-study where samples taken at various distances from a drainage pipe were analyzed. Overall, the predictive system reached an accuracy of 83.3%, cost $29.14, and was able to be completed in under three minutes by each of three volunteers. The main conclusion of this work is that the system developed is cheap, effective, and easy to use, providing a template for future mass production and better testing of water quality worldwide.
Keywords: Water Quality Analysis, Spectrophotometry, Machine Learning, SVM algorithm, Multivariate Multiple Regression
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This paper focuses on the studies conducted on the changes in the exchange rate behavior of selected currencies such as USD, EURO, KRW, and PESO. The importance of the exchange rate is immeasurable since the movement in currency exchange affects the trade and direction of all money between countries. The studies done for this paper were used to observe the changes in this exchange rate on a global basis. Data collection provided a clear overview of the distribution of these studied rates. The exchange rate of each currency was predetermined, and the information was used to create visual histograms and other graphs for prediction. The data from the line graph provided a specific accounting of the movement of the rates over a period of time. The histograms used the information to decide which rate was standard and it was found that the rates fluctuated regularly but always peaked at a specific time. The predictions show that there are no specific patterns and the rates peaked sharply while the modeling was being conducted.
The average range of these fluctuation patterns continued to change regularly until 2021. The predictive model was found using LSTM where it was determined that this data could be used to make significant advancements in the exchange rate volatility on economic growth. It was found that several of the studies determined that the high volatility of the exchange rate had a positive effect on international trade and economic growth. Those who support this theory feel that increased flexibility combined with these volatile exchange rates allow countries to stimulate economic growth. They also determined that as the volatility decreases, the result could present a global financial crisis. When observing these contradictions, it was clear that the impact of exchange rate volatility affects international trade. The bottom line is that economic growth continues to be a significant financial issue.
Keywords: Exploratory Data Analysis(EDA), Exchange Rates, LSTM( Long Short-Term Memory), Neural Networks and Statistical Analysis
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Plants are an integral part of human life. Crops, especially fruits and vegetables, provide humans with energy and nutrients. What would happen if we didn’t have these foods at all? The aim for this research study was to determine if the plant ridding disease, Tobacco Mosaic Virus
(TMV), could be mitigated if treated with propolis; a substance collected from Apis mellifera (honey bees) when they pollinate flowers. The plant selected for this study was Solanum lycopersicum (tomato plant) due to its commonality with the virus itself. Due to the hardships of germination, the plants were bought and not grown and only the leaf count was measured. The plants were split into two groups, control and experimental. TMV was applied to both groups, but only the experimental group was treated with Apis mellifera propolis. Several days later, the experimental group received the propolis. With the control group, about 6 leaves were destroyed and wrinkle while in the experimental group only 2 leaves were shriveled and destroyed. The control group plant had a tilt as the stem was weakening, while the experimental group was upright. The colors didn't change all too much in either except for the leaf color. In the control group, the leaves looked black and brown, while in the experimental it looked slightly brown
rather than black. According to the data collected, the plant-ridden disease of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus can be rid of with the propolis of Apis mellifera.
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, Apis mellifera Propolis, Growth of Tumors, Tobacco Mosaic Virus
In this experiment working with Chromium and Eisenia fetida studying the health and behaviors of Eisenia fetida and how Chromium will affect their behaviors when exposed to Chromium. Other researchers that have done similar research showed that their Eisenia fetida have died because of being exposed to too much Chromium or in other experiments they did not have an outcome because the Eisenia fetida was not exposed to enough Chromium. The Eisenia fetida will be exposed to Chromium for about 2 weeks. The worms will be monitored. The habitat of the Eisenia fetida is moist soil, although some Eisenia fetida actually prefer mud, such as the mud that is found along the shores of lakes or swamps. Eisenia fetida can be found in the soil of backyards as well as near bodies of fresh and saltwater. When the Eisenia Fetida arrive there will be an enclosure for them to be in. Earthworms eat soil. Their nutrition comes from things in soil, such as decaying roots and leaves. The entire surface of a worm's body absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Moisture Eisenia Fetida moves by squeezing muscles around their water- filled bodies. The Earthworms will lose weight when being exposed to Chromium. They will also shrink and the regeneration process for the earthworms will slow down. This shows how Chromium does have an effect on Eisenia fetida and can cause the worms to have different effects.
Keywords: Eisenia fetida, Earthworms, Sublethal doses, Hexavalent chromium
Burlinson, B., Tice, R.R., Speit, G., Agurell, E., Brendler-Schwaab, S.Y., Collins, A.R., Escobar, P., Honma, M., Kumaravel, T.S., Nakajima, M., Sasaki, Y.F., Thybaud, E., Uno, Y., Vasquez, M., Hartmann, A., 2007. Fourth international workgroup on genotoxicity testing: results of in vivo comet assay workgroup. Mutat. Res.
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Coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) has gained widespread interest in the field of mathematical epidemiology in order to inform the public on basic statistics surrounding COVID-19. However, the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), which adjust age and population discrepancies between different regions by comparing a subpopulation to a standard population, have not been shown publicly. Usually, COVID-19 ASMRs have not been calculated due to the lengthy process required to calculate them; however, ASMRs for COVID-19 have occasionally been calculated, but their effectiveness have been hindered due to the use of a hand-written formula and graphical manual methods. My study involved the development of a deep learning algorithm to calculate ASMR and to instantly graph the ASMR of a subpopulation versus the crude mortality rate of the standard population. This algorithm was used to compare the ASMRs for COVID-19 in American states to the crude mortality rate of the standard population, America. In this study, the algorithm shows efficiency with a consistent runtime of time≤5seconds, within 95% confidence interval error bars among trials. ASMRs show statistically significant differences in expected COVID-19 deaths among most populations. There is at least 95% confidence (p≤0.05) that differences in ASMR are independent of age and population distributions. These findings suggest that there are more factors than just age discrepancy that affect COVID-19 mortality rates.
Keywords: COVID-19, Age-Standardization, Mortality Rate, Algorithm, Deep Learning
Abstract: COVID-19 has proven detrimental to the economy and changed the nature of social interactions. Governments at every level have increasingly required the use of face masks in public spaces. Evidence has shown that mandatory mask-wearing policies can effectively control the outbreak of the virus, protecting susceptible populations (i.e., individuals with preexisting conditions, and individuals 65 and older). Many communities encourage mask-wearing to reduce the chance of viral transmission.
While mandatory mask policies appear to effectively reduce transmission of the virus, their long-term psychological effects are not yet known. In this study, we examine the association between the implementation of face mask mandates and detrimental psychological and social consequences as well as other relevant aspects. Also, this study tries to figure out if the mandatory mask policies are advisable, and if so, how it benefits the public.
Keywords: Mask policies, Social behavior, Psychological consequences, Covid-19, Face mask during the pandemic
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Current estimates reveal that approximately 1.2 billion people reside in areas susceptible to flooding. However, due to human-inflicted changes to the environment, it is predicted that within the next 30 years, this number will increase by at least 400 million. Despite the prevailing belief that the effects of flooding are diminutive, catastrophic destruction is possible, especially when victims belong to vulnerable populations. Aside from physical damage, severe flooding often prevents individuals from securing the bare necessities- water, food, shelter, and medical attention- leading to health crises and social segregation. Following Hurricane Sandy, these adverse effects devastated communities on the East Coast, namely those in New York City and Long Island. To mitigate complications during recuperation, researchers proposed updating strategies and policies to take into account factors such as social capital and economic vulnerability. Doing so may ensure that all communities have equal access to ample resources and services, regardless of demographic composition. Therefore, this study investigated the role of community support, as opposed to socioeconomic status, in the vulnerability and resiliency of New York residents to flooding from Hurricane Sandy. Those who are more engaged in politics tend to be more vigilant about the efforts of their local government. If local politicians are unjustly favoring a certain demographic and neglecting the needs of others, people who pay attention to politics are able to identify the problem and understand how it can be rectified. Furthermore, people who pay attention to the workings of their government are more inclined to address social issues. For vulnerable families, this is relevant because an unsupportive, inept government is frequently the root of problems including forced evacuation/homelessness, poverty, inaccessible resources, etc. If political attentiveness could be quantified, policymakers and community organizations would be able to ascertain which populations are less educated about flooding preparation/reconstruction and which populations can assist the former.
Keywords: Flooding, social segregation, flooding preparation/reconstruction, Hurricane Sandy, devastated communities, in New York City and Long Island.
Even though Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide impacting over 300 million individuals, early detection and intervention is hindered by the limited knowledge of its underlying mechanisms. One association found to be significant within MDD is the presence of early life stress (ELS), such as sexual abuse, emotional abuse and family conflict. However, the biological mechanism linking ELS and MDD are unknown.
To properly assess the function consequences of ELS within MDD and address these open questions, we propose an analysis of the metabolism of AMY, ACC, HIP, and DLPFC through FDG PET in addition to a structural MRI in MDD patients with and without ELS. We hypothesize that in MDD patients with prior history of ELS, compared to those without ELS, will have a smaller volume/cortical thickness as measured by MRI and decreased metabolism as measured by PET scans in the bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP, and AMY. This study would for the first time, assess both structure and function of critical regions of the HPA axis in MDD, while accounting for the common confounder of ELS.
Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), early life stress (ELS), emotional abuse, family conflict. bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP
Abstract: African Americans are often viewed as a monolithic group in the United States because Black people generally have been subjected to the same racism and prejudice throughout American society. While African Americans have had many similar experiences in the United States, their opinions on the current political, social, and economic worldview may differ based on ethnic groups. The author chose to closely examine the extent to which family history and decade of one's arrival (or one's family's arrival) to the United States, and the region from which one (or one's family) originated, might influence the current political, social and economic worldview of adolescent and adult Americans who self-identify as Black. In order to study the effects of these variables, I administered surveys to 146 African American adults in suburban New York City. The online survey consisted of four parts. These parts included views on economic success, law enforcement, current events, specifically the Black Lives Matter Movement, and Black representation in American society. Ultimately the study found statistically significant differences between region/decade of arrival and societal world views. There were also gender gaps.
Keywords: African-American, representation, BLM, Afro-Caribbean, African, economic success
Though sharp-wave ripples have been recorded in the EEG data of the hippocampus of mammals for years, it remains unclear how ripples can contribute to memory for different behaviors.. Sharp wave ripples are one of the most synchronous patterns in the mammalian brain. These waves are most common during non-REM sleep, although they can also be associated with consummatory behaviors. In EEG recordings, these occurrences can be seen as large amplitude negative polarity deflections (40–100 ms) in CA1 stratum radiatum that are associated with a short-lived fast oscillatory pattern of the LFP in the CA1 pyramidal layer, known as “ripples.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinction between sleep and awake ripples along with the connection between sharp-wave ripples and specific mammalian behaviors during memory tasks. The hypothesis tested was that SPW-Rs occur when the animal has an experience that will help guide subsequent successful task completion that results in obtaining a desired reward. To conduct the experiment electrophysiological signals were collected from a rat’s hippocampus during various tasks. The data were then analyzed using Neuroscope and compared to a visual recording of the rat’s actions. The data suggest that sharp wave ripples are more likely to occur close to a reward, most often before the reward, and do not have a higher tendency to occur early or late in learning. Future research can further clarify these results and investigate the process by which these ripples occur.
Keywords: EEG data, non-REM sleep, harp-Wave Ripples, Mammalian Behaviors