Special Issues

Listed below is a list of selected special articles.

Articles by Year

4 records are found

Identifying Factors Related to Severe Flooding Vulnerability, Preparedness, and Resiliency in Long Island and New York City

(*Please email us at info@jyem.org for the information on membership to get access to the full article.)



Current estimates reveal that approximately 1.2 billion people reside in areas susceptible to flooding. However, due to human-inflicted changes to the environment, it is predicted that within the next 30 years, this number will increase by at least 400 million. Despite the prevailing belief that the effects of flooding are diminutive, catastrophic destruction is possible, especially when victims belong to vulnerable populations. Aside from physical damage, severe flooding often prevents individuals from securing the bare necessities- water, food, shelter, and medical attention- leading to health crises and social segregation. Following Hurricane Sandy, these adverse effects devastated communities on the East Coast, namely those in New York City and Long Island. To mitigate complications during recuperation, researchers proposed updating strategies and policies to take into account factors such as social capital and economic vulnerability. Doing so may ensure that all communities have equal access to ample resources and services, regardless of demographic composition. Therefore, this study investigated the role of community support, as opposed to socioeconomic status, in the vulnerability and resiliency of New York residents to flooding from Hurricane Sandy. Those who are more engaged in politics tend to be more vigilant about the efforts of their local government. If local politicians are unjustly favoring a certain demographic and neglecting the needs of others, people who pay attention to politics are able to identify the problem and understand how it can be rectified. Furthermore, people who pay attention to the workings of their government are more inclined to address social issues. For vulnerable families, this is relevant because an unsupportive, inept government is frequently the root of problems including forced evacuation/homelessness, poverty, inaccessible resources, etc. If political attentiveness could be quantified, policymakers and community organizations would be able to ascertain which populations are less educated about flooding preparation/reconstruction and which populations can assist the former.

Keywords: Flooding, social segregation, flooding preparation/reconstruction, Hurricane Sandy, devastated communities, in New York City and Long Island.


  1. Becker, J. S., Taylor, H. L., Doody, B. J., Wright, K. C., Gruntfest, E., & Webber, D. (2015). A Review of People's Behavior in and around Floodwater. Weather, Climate, and Society, 7(4), 321-332. https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00030.1
  2. Bukvic, A., Zhu, H., Lavoie, R., & Becker, A. (2018). The role of proximity to waterfront in residents' relocation decision-making post-Hurricane Sandy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.01.002
  3. Campbell, K. A., Laurien, F., Czajkowski, J., Keating, A., Hochrainer-Stigler, S., & Montgomery, M. (2019). First insights from the Flood Resilience Measurement Tool: A large-scale community flood resilience analysis. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 40, 101257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101257
  4. Chakraborty, L., Rus, H., Henstra, D., Thistlethwaite, J., & Scott, D. (2020). A place-based socioeconomic status index: Measuring social vulnerability to flood hazards in the context of environmental justice. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 43, 101394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101394
  5. Clay, P. M., Colburn, L. L., & Seara, T. (2016). Social bonds and recovery: An analysis of Hurricane Sandy in the first year after landfall. Marine Policy, 74, 334-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.04.049
  6. Deria, A., Ghannad, P., & Lee, Y.-C. (2020). Evaluating implications of flood vulnerability factors with respect to income levels for building long-term disaster resilience of low-income communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 48, 101608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101608
  7. Flores, A. B., Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Chakraborty, J. (2020). Social vulnerability to Hurricane Harvey: Unmet needs and adverse event experiences in Greater Houston, Texas. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101521
  8. Fujimi, T., & Fujimura, K. (2020). Testing public interventions for flash flood evacuation through environmental and social cues: The merit of virtual reality experiments. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50, 101690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101690
  9. Gibbens, S. (2019, February). Hurricane Sandy, explained. In National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/reference/hurricane-sandy/#close
  10. Graham, L., Debucquoy, W., & Anguelovski, I. (2016). The influence of urban development dynamics on community resilience practice in New York City after Superstorm Sandy: Experiences from the Lower East Side and the Rockaways. Global Environment Change, 40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.07.001
  11. Hamilton, K., Demant, D., Peden, A. E., & Hagger, M. S. (2020). A systematic review of human behaviour in and around floodwater. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 47, 101561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101561
  12. Maantay, J., & Maroko, A. (2009). Mapping urban risk: Flood hazards, race, & environmental justice in New York. Applied Geography, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2008.08.002
  13. Martins, V. N., Nigg, J., Louis-Charles, H. M., & Kendra, J. M. (2019). Household preparedness in an imminent disaster threat scenario: The case of superstorm sandy in New York City. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 34, 316-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.11.003
  14. McGuire, A. P., Gauthier, J. M., Anderson, L. M., Hollingsworth, D. W., Tracy, M., Galea, S., & Coffey, S. F. (2018). Social Support Moderates Effects of Natural Disaster Exposure on Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Effects for Displaced and Nondisplaced Residents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(2), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22270
  15. Morss, R. E., Mulder, K. J., Lazo, J. K., & Demuth, J. L. (2016). How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Journal of Hydrology, 541, 649-664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.11.047
  16. Ntontis, E., Drury, J., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., & Williams, R. (2020). Endurance or decline of emergent groups following a flood disaster: Implications for community resilience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, 101493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101493
  17. Pourebrahim, N., Sultana, S., Edwards, J., Gochanour, A., & Mohanty, S. (2019). Understanding communication dynamics on Twitter during natural disasters: A case study of Hurricane Sandy. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101176
  18. Rezende, O. M., Ribeiro da Cruz de Franco, A. B., Beleño de Oliveira, A. K., Miranda, F. M., Pitzer Jacob, A. C., Martins de Sousa, M., & Miguez, M. G. (2020). Mapping the flood risk to Socioeconomic Recovery Capacity through a multicriteria index. Journal of Cleaner Production, 255, 120251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120251
  19. Thistlethwaite, J., Henstra, D., Brown, C., & Scott, D. (2017). How Flood Experience and Risk Perception Influences Protective Actions and Behaviours among Canadian Homeowners. Environmental Management, 61(2), 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-017-0969-2
  20. Wang, Z., Lam, N. S.N., Obradovich, N., & Ye, X. (2019). Are vulnerable communities digitally left behind in social responses to natural disasters? An evidence from Hurricane Sandy with Twitter data. Applied Geography, 108, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.05.


Evaluation of Brain Structure and Function in Currently Depressed Adults with a History of Early Life Stress

(*Please email us at info@jyem.org for the information on membership to get access to the full article.)



Even though Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide impacting over 300 million individuals, early detection and intervention is hindered by the limited knowledge of its underlying mechanisms. One association found to be significant within MDD is the presence of early life stress (ELS), such as sexual abuse, emotional abuse and family conflict. However, the biological mechanism linking ELS and MDD are unknown.

To properly assess the function consequences of ELS within MDD and address these open questions, we propose an analysis of the metabolism of AMY, ACC, HIP, and DLPFC through FDG PET in addition to a structural MRI in MDD patients with and without ELS. We hypothesize that in MDD patients with prior history of ELS, compared to those without ELS, will have a smaller volume/cortical thickness as measured by MRI and decreased metabolism as measured by PET scans in the bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP, and AMY. This study would for the first time, assess both structure and function of critical regions of the HPA axis in MDD, while accounting for the common confounder of ELS.

Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), early life stress (ELS), emotional abuse, family conflict. bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP


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American Blacks: The Power of Representation


Abstract: African Americans are often viewed as a monolithic group in the United States because Black people generally have been subjected to the same racism and prejudice throughout American society. While African Americans have had many similar experiences in the United States, their opinions on the current political, social, and economic worldview may differ based on ethnic groups. The author chose to closely examine the extent to which family history and decade of one's arrival (or one's family's arrival) to the United States, and the region from which one (or one's family) originated, might influence the current political, social and economic worldview of adolescent and adult Americans who self-identify as Black. In order to study the effects of these variables, I administered surveys to 146 African American adults in suburban New York City. The online survey consisted of four parts. These parts included views on economic success, law enforcement, current events, specifically the Black Lives Matter Movement, and Black representation in American society. Ultimately the study found statistically significant differences between region/decade of arrival and societal world views. There were also gender gaps.

KeywordsAfrican-American, representation, BLM, Afro-Caribbean, African, economic success

Works Cited

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Sharp-Wave Ripples in Mammalian Behaviors

Keneil H. Soni, Herricks High School


Though sharp-wave ripples have been recorded in the EEG data of the hippocampus of mammals for years, it remains unclear how ripples can contribute to memory for different behaviors.. Sharp wave ripples are one of the most synchronous patterns in the mammalian brain. These waves are most common during non-REM sleep, although they can also be associated with consummatory behaviors. In EEG recordings, these occurrences can be seen as large amplitude negative polarity deflections (40–100 ms) in CA1 stratum radiatum that are associated with a short-lived fast oscillatory pattern of the LFP in the CA1 pyramidal layer, known as “ripples.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinction between sleep and awake ripples along with the connection between sharp-wave ripples and specific mammalian behaviors during memory tasks. The hypothesis tested was that SPW-Rs occur when the animal has an experience that will help guide subsequent successful task completion that results in obtaining a desired reward. To conduct the experiment electrophysiological signals were collected from a rat’s hippocampus during various tasks. The data were then analyzed using Neuroscope and compared to a visual recording of the rat’s actions. The data suggest that sharp wave ripples are more likely to occur close to a reward, most often before the reward, and do not have a higher tendency to occur early or late in learning. Future research can further clarify these results and investigate the process by which these ripples occur.

Keywords: EEG data, non-REM sleep, harp-Wave Ripples, Mammalian Behaviors


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