Special Issues

Listed below is a list of selected special articles.

Articles by Year

15 records are found

Study on Efficiency of Nanoparticles for Water Purification Using Molecular Editing Programs and Computational Analysis

(*Please email us at info@jyem.org for the information on membership to get access to the full article.)


The purpose of this project is to study the potential use of nano-scaled chemicals by testing their efficiency and effectiveness for water purification. The efficiency of these chemicals can be measured by analyzing their physicochemical properties such as optimization energy, dipole moment, and electrostatic map. The electrostatic map visualizes the charge distribution throughout the molecule, the dipole shows the charge difference within an unequally shared bond, and optimization energy shows the levels of stability of the molecules. Molecular editing computer programs were used to measure the optimized geometries and chemical properties in this paper. The modeled structures and atomic properties were analyzed by using electron density theory and considering the stereochemical effects of the molecules

The Avogadro software which is an open-source molecular editing program equipped with auto-optimization features was used in the stereochemical analysis. The program determines the theoretical values of a certain structure’s atomic properties, such as enthalpy, bond strength, and electron distributions through the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This software allows users to build virtually any molecule and optimize its geometry according to various force field options. In this project, the surface-functionalized Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs) and hydrated Fullerenes were modeled and analyzed.

Keywords: Water quality, Purification, Molecular editing program, Avogadro, Density Functional Theory (DFT), Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs)


  1. https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology/introduction/introduction_to_nanotechnology_22.php

  2. https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology/introduction/introduction_to_nanotechnology_22.php

  3. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10311-020-00970-6

  4. https://blog.dexmat.com/carbon-nanotubes-water-filtration

  5. Graphene oxide: A mini-review on the versatility and challenges as a membrane material for solvent-based separation, 2022, Chemical Engineering Journal Advances

  6. Nanotechnology for agricultural applications: Facts, issues, knowledge gaps, and challenges in environmental risk assessment, 2022, Journal of Environmental Management

  7. Overcoming the trade off between the permeation and rejection of TFN nanofiltration membranes through embedding magnetic inner surface functionalized nanotubes, 2022, Process Safety and Environmental Protection

  8. Development of robust and high-performance polysilsesquioxane reverse osmosis membranes modified by SiO nanoparticles for water desalination, 2022, Separation and Purification Technology

  9. Improved lattice Boltzmann method to simulate liquid flow in nanoporous media: Coupling molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical model, 2022, Advances in Water Resources

  10. https://ysjournal.com/carbon-nanotubes-the-future-of-the-planets-freshwater/

  11. https://www.usgs.gov/news/quality-nation%E2%80%99s-groundwater 

  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005998/

  13. https://engage.aiche.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=30e29c55-e8c2-46c9-9e26-7a2af6f4420c&ssopc=1

  14. https://www.aquasana.com/info/which-states-have-the-best-and-worst-tap-water-pd.html 

  15. ttps://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/38077/InTech-Potential_of_carbon_nanotubes_in_water_treatment.pdf

The Effect of Apis mellifera Propolis on the Growth of Tumors on Solanum lycopersicum

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Plants are an integral part of human life. Crops, especially fruits and vegetables, provide humans with energy and nutrients. What would happen if we didn’t have these foods at all? The aim for this research study was to determine if the plant ridding disease, Tobacco Mosaic Virus
(TMV), could be mitigated if treated with propolis; a substance collected from Apis mellifera (honey bees) when they pollinate flowers. The plant selected for this study was Solanum lycopersicum (tomato plant) due to its commonality with the virus itself. Due to the hardships of germination, the plants were bought and not grown and only the leaf count was measured. The plants were split into two groups, control and experimental. TMV was applied to both groups, but only the experimental group was treated with Apis mellifera propolis. Several days later, the experimental group received the propolis. With the control group, about 6 leaves were destroyed and wrinkle while in the experimental group only 2 leaves were shriveled and destroyed. The control group plant had a tilt as the stem was weakening, while the experimental group was upright. The colors didn't change all too much in either except for the leaf color. In the control group, the leaves looked black and brown, while in the experimental it looked slightly brown
rather than black. According to the data collected, the plant-ridden disease of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus can be rid of with the propolis of Apis mellifera.

KeywordsSolanum lycopersicum,  Apis mellifera Propolis,  Growth of Tumors, Tobacco Mosaic Virus


  1. References
    Aiderus, M. (2018). Bioactive Natural Products. Insect Biochemistry, 11(6), 685-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-1790(81)90059-7
  2. Annila, T. (2019). Natural bee products and their apitherapeutic applications - ScienceDirect. Sciencedirect, 117(1), 508-508. https://doi.org/10.5248/117.508
  3. El-Seedi, H., Yosri, N., Chen, L., Abd El-Waheed, A., & Ghulam Musharraf, S. (2020). Antimicrobial Properties of Apis mellifera’s Bee. Proquest.com. Retrieved 24 March 2022, from https://www.proquest.com/docview/2424016008/F7926CD3CA434259PQ/1.
  4. Enderling, K. (2019). What are the different types of tumor?. Medical News Today, 23-25. https://doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2017.005
  5. Kolayi, S., 2021. Bee venom. [online] Bee venom - an overview. Available at 0a%20very,phospholipase%2DA2%20%5B4%5D.> [Accessed 21 December 2021].
  6. Wollaeger, H. (2014). Common questions and answers about tobacco mosaic virus. Michigan State University Extension. Retrieved 16 February 2022, from.
  7. Wagh V. D. (2013). Propolis: a wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials. Advances in pharmacological sciences, 2013, 308249. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/308249
  8. Yin, Z., KOBIKI, A., & KAWADA, H. (2012). Tobacco Mosaic Virus as a New Carrier for Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens. Tobacco Mosaic Virus As A New Carrier For Tumor
    Associated Carbohydrate Antigens, 2012(0), 47. https://doi.org/10.1299/jsmeintmp.2005.47_2


The Effects of Sublethal Doses of Hexavalent Chromium on the Health Eisenia fetida


 In this experiment  working with Chromium and Eisenia fetida studying the health and behaviors of Eisenia fetida and how Chromium will affect their behaviors when exposed to Chromium. Other researchers that have done similar research showed that their Eisenia fetida have died because of being exposed to too much Chromium or in other experiments they did not have an outcome because the Eisenia fetida was not exposed to enough Chromium. The Eisenia fetida will be exposed to Chromium for about 2 weeks. The worms  will be monitored. The habitat of the Eisenia fetida is moist soil, although some Eisenia fetida actually prefer mud, such as the mud that is found along the shores of lakes or swamps. Eisenia fetida can be found in the soil of backyards as well as near bodies of fresh and saltwater.  When the  Eisenia Fetida arrive  there will be an enclosure for them to be in. Earthworms eat soil. Their nutrition comes from things in soil, such as decaying roots and leaves. The entire surface of a worm's body absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. Moisture Eisenia Fetida moves  by squeezing muscles around their water- filled bodies. The Earthworms  will lose weight  when being exposed to Chromium. They will also shrink and the regeneration process for the earthworms will slow down. This shows how Chromium does have an effect on Eisenia fetida  and can cause the worms to have different effects.

Keywords: Eisenia fetida, Earthworms, Sublethal doses, Hexavalent chromium


  1. Burlinson, B., Tice, R.R., Speit, G., Agurell, E., Brendler-Schwaab, S.Y., Collins, A.R., Escobar, P., Honma, M., Kumaravel, T.S., Nakajima, M., Sasaki, Y.F., Thybaud, E., Uno, Y., Vasquez, M., Hartmann, A., 2007. Fourth international workgroup on genotoxicity testing: results of in vivo comet assay workgroup. Mutat. Res.

  2. Ching, E.W.K., Siu, W.H.L., Lam, P.K.S., Xu, L., Zhang, Y., Richardson, B.J., Wu, R.S.S., 2001. DNA adduct formation and DNA strand breaks in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene: dose- and time-dependent relationships. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42, 603–610. Cotelle, S., Ferard, J.-F., 1999. Comet assay in genetic ecotoxicology: a review. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 34, 246–255.

  3. Di Marzio, W.D., Saenz, M.E., Lemière, S., Vasseur, P., 2005. Improved single-cell gel electrophoresis assay for detecting DNA damage in Eisenia foetida. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 46, 246–252. Fourie, F., Reinecke, S.A., Reinecke, A.J., 2007. The determination of earthworm species sensitivity differences to cadmium genotoxicity using the comet assay. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 67, 361–368. 

  4. Di Palma, L., Gueye, M.T., Petrucci, E., 2015. Hexavalent chromium reduction in contaminated soil : a comparison
    between ferrous sulfate and nanoscale zero-valent iron. J. Hazard Mater. 70–76.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.058.

  5. Dong, H., Deng, J., Xie, Y., Zhang, C., Jiang, Z., Cheng, Y., Hou, K., Zeng, G., 2017.Stabilization of nanoscale
    zero-valent iron (nZVI) with modified biochar for Cr(VI)removal from aqueous solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials.
    Elsevier B.V.

  6. Inzunza, B., Orrego, R., Peñalosa, M., Gavilán, J.F., Barra, R., 2006. Analysis of CYP4501A1, PAHs metabolites in bile, and genotoxic damage in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Biobío River sediments, Central Chile. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 65, 242–251. 

A Novel Deep Learning Algorithm to Calculate and Model the Age-Standardized COVID-19 Mortality Rate of a Subpopulation When Compared to a Standard Population

(*Please email us at info@jyem.org for the information on membership to get access to the full article.)


Coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) has gained widespread interest in the field of mathematical epidemiology in order to inform the public on basic statistics surrounding COVID-19. However, the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), which adjust age and population discrepancies between different regions by comparing a subpopulation to a standard population, have not been shown publicly. Usually, COVID-19 ASMRs have not been calculated due to the lengthy process required to calculate them; however, ASMRs for COVID-19 have occasionally been calculated, but their effectiveness have been hindered due to the use of a hand-written formula and graphical manual methods. My study involved the development of a deep learning algorithm to calculate ASMR and to instantly graph the ASMR of a subpopulation versus the crude mortality rate of the standard population. This algorithm was used to compare the ASMRs for COVID-19 in American states to the crude mortality rate of the standard population, America. In this study, the algorithm shows efficiency with a consistent runtime of time≤5seconds, within 95% confidence interval error bars among trials. ASMRs show statistically significant differences in expected COVID-19 deaths among most populations. There is at least 95% confidence (p≤0.05) that differences in ASMR are independent of age and population distributions. These findings suggest that there are more factors than just age discrepancy that affect COVID-19 mortality rates.

Keywords: COVID-19, Age-Standardization, Mortality Rate, Algorithm, Deep Learning


  1. Wang, D., Li, Z., & Liu, Y. (2020). An overview of the safety, clinical application and antiviral research of the COVID-19 therapeutics. Journal of Infection and Public Health. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.004
  2. Brown, S. M., Doom, J. R., Lechuga-Peña, S., Watamura, S. E., & Koppels, T. (2020). Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child Abuse & Neglect. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104699
  3. Overton, C. E., Stage, H. B., Ahmad, S., Curran-Sebastian, J., Dark, P., Das, R., . . . Webb, L. (2020). Using statistics and mathematical modelling to understand infectious disease outbreaks: COVID-19 as an example. Infectious Disease Modelling, 5, 409-441. doi:10.1016/j.idm.2020.06.008
  4. Tiirinki, H., Tynkkynen, L., Sovala, M., Atkins, S., Koivusalo, M., Rautiainen, P., . . . Keskimäki, I. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in Finland – preliminary analysis on health system response and economic consequences. Health Policy and Technology. doi:10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.08.005
  5. Russell, T. W., Hellewell, J., Jarvis, C. I., Zandvoort, K. V., Abbott, S., Ratnayake, R., . . . Kucharski, A. J. (2020). Estimating the infection and case fatality ratio for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using age-adjusted data from the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship, February 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(12). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.es.2020.25.12.2000256
  6. Bernardino, G., Benkarim, O., Garza, M. S., Prat-Gonzàlez, S., Sepulveda-Martinez, A., Crispi, F., . . . Ballester, M. A. (2020). Handling confounding variables in statistical shape analysis - application to cardiac remodelling. Medical Image Analysis, 65. doi:10.1016/j.media.2020.101792
  7. Xu, L., Polya, D. A., Li, Q., & Mondal, D. (2020). Association of low-level inorganic arsenic exposure from rice with age-standardized mortality risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in England and Wales. Science of The Total Environment, 743. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140534
  8. Shende, R., Gupta, G., & Macherla, S. (2019). Determination of an inflection point for a dosimetric analysis of unflattened beam using the first principle of derivatives by python code programming. Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, 24(5), 432-442. doi:10.1016/j.rpor.2019.07.009
  9. Mohamed, M. O., Gale, C. P., Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Belder, M. D., Asaria, M., . . . Mamas, M. A. (2020). Sex-differences in mortality rates and underlying conditions for COVID-19 deaths in England and Wales. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.07.009
  10. Kavadi, D. P., Patan, R., Ramachandran, M., & Gandomi, A. H. (2020). Partial derivative Nonlinear Global Pandemic Machine Learning prediction of COVID 19. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 139. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2020.110056
  11. Minicozzi, P., Cassetti, T., Vener, C., & Sant, M. (2018). Analysis of incidence, mortality and survival for pancreatic and biliary tract cancers across Europe, with assessment of influence of revised European age standardisation on estimates. Cancer Epidemiology, 55, 52-60. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2018.04.011
  12. Bosch, Jaume, et al. “Asynchronous Runtime with Distributed Manager for Task-Based Programming Models.” Parallel Computing, vol. 97, 2020, p. 102664., doi:10.1016/j.parco.2020.102664.
  13. Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos E., et al. “Risk for COVID-19 Infection and Death among Latinos in the United States: Examining Heterogeneity in Transmission Dynamics.” Annals of Epidemiology, 23 July 2020, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.07.007.
  14. Wiemers, Emily, et al. “Disparities in Vulnerability to Severe Complications from COVID-19 in the United States.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, vol. 69, 2020, doi:10.3386/w27294.
  15. Etkin, Yana, et al. “Acute Arterial Thromboembolism in Patients with COVID-19 in the New York City Area.” Annals of Vascular Surgery, 28 Aug. 2020, doi:10.1016/j.avsg.2020.08.085.
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov/.
  17. 2020 World Population by Country, worldpopulationreview.com/

Impact of Mask Policies on Social and Psychological Consequences During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Abstract: COVID-19 has proven detrimental to the economy and changed the nature of social interactions. Governments at every level have increasingly required the use of face masks in public spaces. Evidence has shown that mandatory mask-wearing policies can effectively control the outbreak of the virus, protecting susceptible populations (i.e., individuals with preexisting conditions, and individuals 65 and older). Many communities encourage mask-wearing to reduce the chance of viral transmission. 

While mandatory mask policies appear to effectively reduce transmission of the virus, their long-term psychological effects are not yet known. In this study, we examine the association between the implementation of face mask mandates and detrimental psychological and social consequences as well as other relevant aspects. Also, this study tries to figure out if the mandatory mask policies are advisable, and if so, how it benefits the public. 

Keywords:  Mask policies, Social behavior, Psychological consequences, Covid-19, Face mask during the pandemic


  1. Detsky, A. S. and Bogoch, I. I. (2020, August 25). The Canadian Response To COVID-19. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/276943

  2. Duan, L. and Zhu, G. (2020). Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet. Psych. 7 300–302. 10.1016/s2215-0366(20)30073-

  3. Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S. and Wessely, S. (2020). Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. BMJ 368:m1211. 10.1136/bmj.m121

  4. Liu S., Yang L., Zhang C., Xiang Y. T., Liu Z., Hu S., et al. (2020). Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet. Psych. 7 E17–E18. 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-

  5. Maheu, M. P., McMenamin, J. and Posen, L. (2012). Future of telepsychology, telehealth, and various technologies in psychological research and practice. Profess. Psychol. Res. Prac. 43 613–621. 10.1037/a0029458

  6. Parshley, L. and Zhou, Y. (2020, December 4). Why every state should adopt a mask mandate, in 4 charts. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/21546014/mask-mandates-coronavirus-covid-19

  7. The Economist. (2020, October 14). Tracking covid-19 excess deaths across countries. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/coronavirus-excess-deaths-tracker

  8. The Economist. (2020, October 11). Covid-19 has led to a sharp increase in depression and anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2021/10/11/covid-19-has-led-to-a-sharp-increase-in-depression-and-anxiety

  9. Wang, C. J., Chun, Y. and Brook, R. H. (2020, April 14). Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762689

  10. Zhou X., Snoswell C. L., Harding L. E. (2020). The Role of Telehealth in Reducing the Mental Health Burden from COVID-19. Telemed. E Health. 26 377–379. 10.1089/tmj.2020.0068

Identifying Factors Related to Severe Flooding Vulnerability, Preparedness, and Resiliency in Long Island and New York City

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Current estimates reveal that approximately 1.2 billion people reside in areas susceptible to flooding. However, due to human-inflicted changes to the environment, it is predicted that within the next 30 years, this number will increase by at least 400 million. Despite the prevailing belief that the effects of flooding are diminutive, catastrophic destruction is possible, especially when victims belong to vulnerable populations. Aside from physical damage, severe flooding often prevents individuals from securing the bare necessities- water, food, shelter, and medical attention- leading to health crises and social segregation. Following Hurricane Sandy, these adverse effects devastated communities on the East Coast, namely those in New York City and Long Island. To mitigate complications during recuperation, researchers proposed updating strategies and policies to take into account factors such as social capital and economic vulnerability. Doing so may ensure that all communities have equal access to ample resources and services, regardless of demographic composition. Therefore, this study investigated the role of community support, as opposed to socioeconomic status, in the vulnerability and resiliency of New York residents to flooding from Hurricane Sandy. Those who are more engaged in politics tend to be more vigilant about the efforts of their local government. If local politicians are unjustly favoring a certain demographic and neglecting the needs of others, people who pay attention to politics are able to identify the problem and understand how it can be rectified. Furthermore, people who pay attention to the workings of their government are more inclined to address social issues. For vulnerable families, this is relevant because an unsupportive, inept government is frequently the root of problems including forced evacuation/homelessness, poverty, inaccessible resources, etc. If political attentiveness could be quantified, policymakers and community organizations would be able to ascertain which populations are less educated about flooding preparation/reconstruction and which populations can assist the former.

Keywords: Flooding, social segregation, flooding preparation/reconstruction, Hurricane Sandy, devastated communities, in New York City and Long Island.


  1. Becker, J. S., Taylor, H. L., Doody, B. J., Wright, K. C., Gruntfest, E., & Webber, D. (2015). A Review of People's Behavior in and around Floodwater. Weather, Climate, and Society, 7(4), 321-332. https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00030.1
  2. Bukvic, A., Zhu, H., Lavoie, R., & Becker, A. (2018). The role of proximity to waterfront in residents' relocation decision-making post-Hurricane Sandy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.01.002
  3. Campbell, K. A., Laurien, F., Czajkowski, J., Keating, A., Hochrainer-Stigler, S., & Montgomery, M. (2019). First insights from the Flood Resilience Measurement Tool: A large-scale community flood resilience analysis. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 40, 101257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101257
  4. Chakraborty, L., Rus, H., Henstra, D., Thistlethwaite, J., & Scott, D. (2020). A place-based socioeconomic status index: Measuring social vulnerability to flood hazards in the context of environmental justice. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 43, 101394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101394
  5. Clay, P. M., Colburn, L. L., & Seara, T. (2016). Social bonds and recovery: An analysis of Hurricane Sandy in the first year after landfall. Marine Policy, 74, 334-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.04.049
  6. Deria, A., Ghannad, P., & Lee, Y.-C. (2020). Evaluating implications of flood vulnerability factors with respect to income levels for building long-term disaster resilience of low-income communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 48, 101608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101608
  7. Flores, A. B., Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Chakraborty, J. (2020). Social vulnerability to Hurricane Harvey: Unmet needs and adverse event experiences in Greater Houston, Texas. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101521
  8. Fujimi, T., & Fujimura, K. (2020). Testing public interventions for flash flood evacuation through environmental and social cues: The merit of virtual reality experiments. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50, 101690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101690
  9. Gibbens, S. (2019, February). Hurricane Sandy, explained. In National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/reference/hurricane-sandy/#close
  10. Graham, L., Debucquoy, W., & Anguelovski, I. (2016). The influence of urban development dynamics on community resilience practice in New York City after Superstorm Sandy: Experiences from the Lower East Side and the Rockaways. Global Environment Change, 40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.07.001
  11. Hamilton, K., Demant, D., Peden, A. E., & Hagger, M. S. (2020). A systematic review of human behaviour in and around floodwater. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 47, 101561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101561
  12. Maantay, J., & Maroko, A. (2009). Mapping urban risk: Flood hazards, race, & environmental justice in New York. Applied Geography, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2008.08.002
  13. Martins, V. N., Nigg, J., Louis-Charles, H. M., & Kendra, J. M. (2019). Household preparedness in an imminent disaster threat scenario: The case of superstorm sandy in New York City. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 34, 316-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.11.003
  14. McGuire, A. P., Gauthier, J. M., Anderson, L. M., Hollingsworth, D. W., Tracy, M., Galea, S., & Coffey, S. F. (2018). Social Support Moderates Effects of Natural Disaster Exposure on Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Effects for Displaced and Nondisplaced Residents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(2), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22270
  15. Morss, R. E., Mulder, K. J., Lazo, J. K., & Demuth, J. L. (2016). How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Journal of Hydrology, 541, 649-664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.11.047
  16. Ntontis, E., Drury, J., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., & Williams, R. (2020). Endurance or decline of emergent groups following a flood disaster: Implications for community resilience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, 101493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101493
  17. Pourebrahim, N., Sultana, S., Edwards, J., Gochanour, A., & Mohanty, S. (2019). Understanding communication dynamics on Twitter during natural disasters: A case study of Hurricane Sandy. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101176
  18. Rezende, O. M., Ribeiro da Cruz de Franco, A. B., Beleño de Oliveira, A. K., Miranda, F. M., Pitzer Jacob, A. C., Martins de Sousa, M., & Miguez, M. G. (2020). Mapping the flood risk to Socioeconomic Recovery Capacity through a multicriteria index. Journal of Cleaner Production, 255, 120251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120251
  19. Thistlethwaite, J., Henstra, D., Brown, C., & Scott, D. (2017). How Flood Experience and Risk Perception Influences Protective Actions and Behaviours among Canadian Homeowners. Environmental Management, 61(2), 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-017-0969-2
  20. Wang, Z., Lam, N. S.N., Obradovich, N., & Ye, X. (2019). Are vulnerable communities digitally left behind in social responses to natural disasters? An evidence from Hurricane Sandy with Twitter data. Applied Geography, 108, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.05.


Evaluation of Brain Structure and Function in Currently Depressed Adults with a History of Early Life Stress

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Even though Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide impacting over 300 million individuals, early detection and intervention is hindered by the limited knowledge of its underlying mechanisms. One association found to be significant within MDD is the presence of early life stress (ELS), such as sexual abuse, emotional abuse and family conflict. However, the biological mechanism linking ELS and MDD are unknown.

To properly assess the function consequences of ELS within MDD and address these open questions, we propose an analysis of the metabolism of AMY, ACC, HIP, and DLPFC through FDG PET in addition to a structural MRI in MDD patients with and without ELS. We hypothesize that in MDD patients with prior history of ELS, compared to those without ELS, will have a smaller volume/cortical thickness as measured by MRI and decreased metabolism as measured by PET scans in the bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP, and AMY. This study would for the first time, assess both structure and function of critical regions of the HPA axis in MDD, while accounting for the common confounder of ELS.

Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), early life stress (ELS), emotional abuse, family conflict. bilateral DLPFC, ACC, HIP


  1. Fitzgerald, P.B., et al., A meta-analytic study of changes in brain activation in depression. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. 29(6): p. 683-95.
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American Blacks: The Power of Representation


Abstract: African Americans are often viewed as a monolithic group in the United States because Black people generally have been subjected to the same racism and prejudice throughout American society. While African Americans have had many similar experiences in the United States, their opinions on the current political, social, and economic worldview may differ based on ethnic groups. The author chose to closely examine the extent to which family history and decade of one's arrival (or one's family's arrival) to the United States, and the region from which one (or one's family) originated, might influence the current political, social and economic worldview of adolescent and adult Americans who self-identify as Black. In order to study the effects of these variables, I administered surveys to 146 African American adults in suburban New York City. The online survey consisted of four parts. These parts included views on economic success, law enforcement, current events, specifically the Black Lives Matter Movement, and Black representation in American society. Ultimately the study found statistically significant differences between region/decade of arrival and societal world views. There were also gender gaps.

KeywordsAfrican-American, representation, BLM, Afro-Caribbean, African, economic success

Works Cited

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Sharp-Wave Ripples in Mammalian Behaviors

Keneil H. Soni, Herricks High School


Though sharp-wave ripples have been recorded in the EEG data of the hippocampus of mammals for years, it remains unclear how ripples can contribute to memory for different behaviors.. Sharp wave ripples are one of the most synchronous patterns in the mammalian brain. These waves are most common during non-REM sleep, although they can also be associated with consummatory behaviors. In EEG recordings, these occurrences can be seen as large amplitude negative polarity deflections (40–100 ms) in CA1 stratum radiatum that are associated with a short-lived fast oscillatory pattern of the LFP in the CA1 pyramidal layer, known as “ripples.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinction between sleep and awake ripples along with the connection between sharp-wave ripples and specific mammalian behaviors during memory tasks. The hypothesis tested was that SPW-Rs occur when the animal has an experience that will help guide subsequent successful task completion that results in obtaining a desired reward. To conduct the experiment electrophysiological signals were collected from a rat’s hippocampus during various tasks. The data were then analyzed using Neuroscope and compared to a visual recording of the rat’s actions. The data suggest that sharp wave ripples are more likely to occur close to a reward, most often before the reward, and do not have a higher tendency to occur early or late in learning. Future research can further clarify these results and investigate the process by which these ripples occur.

Keywords: EEG data, non-REM sleep, harp-Wave Ripples, Mammalian Behaviors


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No-Self and Mindfulness as Tools for Liberatory Activism


In this paper analyzes the conceptual value of the Buddhist teachings of no-self and mindfulness for contemporary activism. First it explores how the doctrine of no-self promotes extended empathy, self-awareness, self-love, and self-care. Second, it explores how the doctrine of mindfulness both resolves some of the organization-related tensions between no-self and activism and provides additional tools for effective activism, as mindfulness promotes embodied care and right action.

The main purpose of this paper was to propose a new philosophical approach to contemporary activism that would address its central problems on personal, interpersonal, and organizational levels.

    Keywords-component; Buddhism; Zen; No-Self; Mindfulness; Activism

I. Introduction  

It may seem counterintuitive to suggest that the Zen Buddhist doctrines of no-self and mindfulness might be effective tools for activism, considering that no-self completely undermines the Western conception of moral agency, and mindfulness promotes an awareness and acceptance of the present and detachment from desire for change. If activism is an organized effort to help others and ourselves in the face of injustice, can that really be achieved without a robust notion of the self and a powerful desire for change?

This paper argues that together, mindfulness and no-self can create a basis for better activism by addressing its central problems on personal, interpersonal, and organizational levels. First, it will be argued that the doctrine of no-self, far from limiting agency, promotes extended empathy, self-awareness, self-love, and self-care. Second, it will be argued that the doctrine of mindfulness both resolves some of the organization-related tensions between no-self and activism and provides additional tools for effective activism, as mindfulness promotes embodied care and right action. In this way, the incorporation of no-self and mindfulness into activism creates a comprehensive new approach to activism that is equipped to combat its main issues.

II. No-Self

Zen Buddhism is based upon a radical doctrine of no-self. Because no single part of what makes up the self can individually be considered the seat of the ego that “selfhood” is a term that, rather than actually defining a real entity, simply acts as a reference to an unfounded conception of ego. [5](Warren 133) In this way, no-self is a valuable conceptual tool for activism.

A. Extended Empathy

First, no-self promotes extended empathy because the practitioner of no-self is unable to make an ontological distinction between the suffering of others and their own suffering, which in turn becomes a trigger for advocacy and cooperation among activists.

One could argue that no-self will not adequately extend empathy to distant others, as being informed of suffering at the other end of the world will not have the same effect as seeing someone suffering in front of you. However, it logically follows from the doctrine of no-self that we are not a self experiencing others but rather a being experiencing itself. [3](Tanahashi 69) In this way, no-self cannot favor empathy for the suffering of “near others” over “distant others”, as according to this doctrine there is no “other” at all.

B. Self-Knowledge

Second, no-self entails a detachment that not only allows individuals to engage with the world with the same care with which they engage with themselves, but also to engage with themselves with the same honest with which they engage with the world. no-self leads to self-awareness which is actualized through a recognition of privilege and an intersectional approach to activism. Introspection becomes outwardly inclusive when the “potential of inner-subjective diversity” - that is to say, the power of acknowledging the “multiplicity” of individual experiences creates an inclusive activism. [2](Kalmanson 817)

It could be argued that such an intersectional approach will not necessarily strengthen an activist movement, because giving equal weight to all experiences might undermine the purpose of a movement by shifting the focus, or accidentally promoting contradictory goals. However, intersectionality is the only way to effectively achieve any goal. For instance, if the goal of the feminist movement is gender equality, then it logically follows that it should work to dismantle oppressive norms and systems that subjugate women. Not all women experience the oppressive norms and systems in the same way, based on individual circumstances, and so will present a multiplicity of experience. If we are to reject an intersectional approach, it follows that there must be one accepted form of womanhood, and so resistance will only happen along those lines – and almost always, the standard is set by the most powerful within that group and excludes many other experiences. As such, the doctrine of no-self may be a critical tool to facilitating an intersectional approach to activism – an approach that is not only helpful, but also arguably necessary.

C. Self-Love

Third, the doctrine of no-self facilitates radical self-love, which in turn becomes a tool to counter internalized disvalues. Though it may seem ironic that no-self would promote self-love, acceptance of the multiplicity and change of identity, and so leads to greater self-love as there is no longer a need to fit a self- or societally-imposed narrative of identity. Kalmanson has identified the aesthetic value of rejecting a fixed self, and argues that recognizing of the value of multiplicity and change is potentially liberatory. [2](Kalmanson 818) Not only does this rejection of a single self be beautiful in itself, but it allows one to see the beauty in oneself in one’s particularity, and as a constantly shifting and infinitely faceted becoming. This self-acceptance is key to activism because a greater acceptance of oneself dismantles internalized oppression on a micro scale and validates a struggle for justice.

One possible objection to the utility of self-love in activism is that self-love may blind people to their faults, making them inefficient and potentially even counterproductive activists. If self-love is not conditional upon doing good, but rather naturally follows from no-self, then it seems that there is no mechanism to revoke this love, and so there is no emotional consequence to doing something wrong. However, if paired with self-awareness, which requires constant contextual evaluation of experience, self-love can nonetheless be a valuable tool. Promoting self-love does not imply that one should have a preference for oneself; it is simply another way to be able to see the beauty and faults in all perspectives, especially those that are in constant flux.  

D. Self-Care

Fourth, no-self promotes self-care to prevent burnout and martyrdom in activists. Successful and ethical activism should protect those who engage in it, especially because often those who are engaged in fighting for justice are those who most affected by the injustice. To this end, no-self can be employed to promote self-care. Insofar as an activist’s goal is to rectify injustice and a practitioner of no-self should have no preference for self over other or, crucially, for other over self, then an activist should give themselves the same care they give to others.

It could be argued that activists practicing self-care may be a detriment to their cause as presumably activists are in a more powerful position than those they advocate for, and so any act of self-care maintains this power dynamic. However, regardless of whether or not activists are more powerful than those they aim to protect, self-care is still an important tool for activism. Firstly, because if an activist has more power than those they are defending, they will not necessarily be cared for in the same way they care for others. And secondly, because they are more likely to know what they need and address their needs accordingly, thus using their limited time and energy in a way that is more likely to be efficient. Therefore, self-care as facilitated by no-self is vital to sustainable activism.

Because it leads to extended empathy, self-awareness, self-love, and self-care, no-self is a valuable tool for rethinking activism to make it more efficient, inclusive, and sustainable. However, despite its many benefits, no-self is not sufficient on its own to radically improve activism because it cannot be used as a guide for action or as a tool for organization, both of which are essential parts of effective activism. At the very least, even if no-self does not impede agency, it is only helpful in addressing the more theoretical aspects of activism. In order to complement this discussion of no-self, one must turn to the potential role of mindfulness in efficient activism.

III. Mindfulness

   In order to achieve enlightenment, Buddha proposed the Eightfold Path, of which one of the steps is "right mindfulness", which entails being fully attentive to one's experience in every moment. In addition to the benefits of applying the no-self doctrine to activism, mindfulness is a useful tool for activism because it promotes the application of embodied care and the prioritization of right action, both of which are helpful to guiding action and organization in activist movements.

A. Embodied Care

Mindfulness can be a useful tool in facilitating responsible and effective activism by promoting embodied care. Embodied care consists in being fully mindful while engaging in care, so that we are more responsible in our actions, thus maximizing our impact while limiting unconscious repetition of damaging behaviors, such as microaggressions. [1](Butnor 422) A mindful approach to activism would therefore allow activists to do the most good and the least harm, and takes into account one’s behavior instead of just one’s goals, which encourages a much deeper and more purposeful engagement with one’s experience and values.

One serious objection to the relevance of embodied care in activism is that such a sensitive awareness of the world, and particularly of others, is not possible for everyone. For instance, embodied care may not be accessible to all individuals on the autism spectrum, which seriously limits its applicability in all areas of activism, but especially when it comes to activism with the goal of promoting the rights of neurodivergent individuals (i.e. those whose mental state is consistently divergent from the norm through mental illness, etc.). However, even if some individuals are less capable of engaging mindfully with all of their surroundings and so less capable of engaging in embodied care, it is still a valuable tool for activism. Embodied care does not require reciprocity to work, except insofar as it is easier to care for others that also care for you. Because of this, just because some people may be less capable of engaging in this way does not meant that it will be a less valuable tool for those that are willing and capable.

B. Right Action

Mindfulness is also a path towards consistently right action. For the mindful activist, the end cannot justify the means, as all actions must be both appropriate and effective. [4](Uebel & Shorkey 221) In this way, mindful activism holds its practitioners to a higher standard of awareness. Not only will this prevent the justification of morally questionable behavior, but it will also require that activists with the same goals act in compatible ways, because mindful activism values being concretely aware over being abstractly “better”.

Though one could argue that this approach to activism makes long-term planning and cohesive vision difficult, mindful activism is actually beneficial in the long-term and facilitates the creation of a cohesive vision across differences. First, mindfulness paired with no-self not only facilitates communication across differences but actually requires it, making activism more effective and inclusive as discussions will be ego-less. Second, long-term planning is not necessarily a problem for mindful activism because part of mindfulness includes a particular awareness of the present moment in which the present moment encompasses all of time. [3](Tanahasi 77 §4) As such, one is always aware of the future is always but one can never override situational appropriateness.


   The author gratefully acknowledges and thanks Dr. Ian Sullivan for his eye-opening perspective on the practical applications of Buddhist thought and for his support.


[1] Butnor, Ashby. 2014. “Dogen, Feminism, and the Embodied Practice of Care”. In Asian and Feminist Philosophies in Dialogue, ed. Jennifer McWeeny and Ashby Butnor.

[2] Kalmanson, Leah. “Buddhism and bell hooks: Liberatory Aesthetics and the Radical Subjectivity of No-Self.” Hypatia Vol. 27, No. 4 (2012): 810–827.

[3] Tanahashi Kazuaki, trans. 1985. Moon in a dewdrop: Writings of Zen master Dōgen. New York: North Point.

[4] Uebel, Michael, and Shorkey, Clayton. 2014. "Mindfulness and Engaged Buddhism: Implications for a Generalist Macro Social Work Practice". In Mindfulness and Acceptance in Social Work: Evidence-Based Interventions and Emerging Applications, ed. Matthew S. Boone: 215-234. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

[5] Warren, Henry Clarke. 2005. “There is no ego”. Buddhism in Translations: 129-146. New York: Cosimo Classics.